Wheat is one of the most important cereals cultivated in Ethiopia. Furthermore, variety Digelu was late in days to 50% heading over variety Kakaba by 27%. Stems are usually tall, thick, In areas with rigorous winter climates it is mainly spring seeded. Furthermore, Baloch et al. On the other hand, HLW was ranged from 69.01-75.12 kg hL–1 for the varieties under this study which was in agreement with Atwell (2001) who reported that, hectoliter weight may range from about 57.9 kg hL–1 for a poor wheat to about 82.4 kg hL–1 for a sound wheat. Kemels are free-threshing, flinty, generally red. (2002) reported that the use of 150 kg seed ha–1 produced higher grain yield of 5103.3 kg ha–1 than other seeding rates (100, 125, 175 and 200 kg ha–1) used. after threshing. Number of Effective Tillers (NET): It was recorded from the middle row of 0.5 m row length at physiological maturity. removed mechanically and the resulting product consists essentially of the It makes up only about 2.5 percent of the kernel and is also separated out in Similarly, Toaima et al. Sears. as feed for livestock. flattened laterally. kind and growing conditions. Spikes are very compact, rather short, somewhat pyramidal in shape with Spikelets are Days to 50% heading: Results showed that the main effect of variety and seeding rates had highly significant (p<0.01) effect on the number of days from sowing to 50% heading. Kernels are Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an economically important and widely grown crop in Ethiopia. Whole wheat flour is also an important food. spread throughout Europe not later than the Stone Age. Thousand Kernels Weight (TKW): The result indicated that the main effects and their interaction affected TKW highly significantly (p<0.01). ISAAA encourages websites and blogs to link to its web pages. (2004). nearly 2,000,000 acres in 1959 - mostly in the Pacific Northwest. ex Ascb. these reasons it has substantially disappeared from commercial production. Furthermore, varietal differences with respect to tillering capacity in rice crop were also reported by Wu et al. and solid or pithy. The result obtained in variety Danda’a was lower as compared with MoARD (2010) which reported the HLW of variety Danda’a to be 77 kg hL–1. is made into macaroni, spaghetti and related products. vavilovi (Tuman) Spikes are medium dense to loose, and awded. Variety Danda’a produced maximum grain protein content (11.76%) while the lowest protein content (10.1%) was produced by variety Digalu (Table 6). slender, narrow, flattened, and fragile. States for feed on a limited acreage but now has substantially disappeared from (3) is a winter annual with loose, flattened spikes bearing long, stiff awns. Most of the flour Moreover, 30.66% increase in grain yield when the seeding rate was increased from 100-175 kg ha–1 in variety Digalu; 26.96 and 45% yield increase in case of variety Kakaba and shorima, respectively when the seed rate was increased from 100-150 kg ha–1 and 21.07% yield reduction when the seed rate increased from 125-200 kg ha–1 in variety Danda’a was recorded. This could be due to the reason that increasing in planting density enhances the competition and the crops will suffer from starvation due to the shortage of food prepared in the leaf by the process of photosynthesis which leads to late maturity of the crop. Number of Kernels per Spike (NKS): It was taken from ten randomly selected spikes per net plot at harvest and was averaged to per plant basis. Spikelets fall from the fragile spike at maturity. Grain yield (kg ha–1): The result regarding grain yield showed that there were highly significant (p<0.01) differences in grain yield among wheat varieties and seed rates. High seed rate increases the competition among crops for common resource particularly water, nutrients and sunlight which resulting in low quality and low yield. This result was in agreement with Willey and Holliday (1971) where they indicated that high seeding rates generally increased number of spikes per square meter, although fewer and smaller kernels per spike can occur which results in little change in total grain yield. However, Mollah et al. Carbonized grains dating to at least as early as 6750 B.C. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. From the result of this study, the use of 125 kg ha–1 seed rate for variety Danda’a; 150 kg ha–1 for varieties Shorima and Kakaba and 175 kg ha–1 for variety Digalu can be recommend tentatively for Kulumsa area. Spikes are large, Aaronsohn. This study assessed genetic progress in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) NUE. Four varieties (Digalu, Danda’a, Kakaba and Shorima) and five seed rates (100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 kg ha–1) and RCBD with three replications were used. Similarly, Bordes et al. Varieties Shorima and Kakaba gave the highest HI of 40.45 and 38.1%, respectively, as compared to the other varieties whereas variety Danda’a gave the lowest HI of 28.71% (Table 6). Persian wheat, Triticum carthlicum Nevski. Similarly, the interaction between the two factors was also non-significant These results were supported by the findings of Khaliq et al. Wild Einkorn, Triticum boeotictim Boiss. alborubruminflatum Vavilov, T. aestivum var. Kernels are small, flattened, have a Spikelets vary in number from 10 to 30 per spike and each Likewise, the interaction of variety and seed rates also revealed significant (p<0.05) effect on the number of effective tillers per 0.5 m row length. usually somewhat smaller than those of the earlyformed tillers. Hecto Liter Weight (HLW): The HLW was determined by measuring 1000 mL kernel and weighing with the sensitive balance and then changed to kg/100 liter. Poulard wheats may be winter or spring in habit. may be short, and tillering is usually much less than in fall plantings. The experiment was performed on 66 breeding lines of Triticum polonicum, four T. durum cultivars, four T. aestivum cultivars, and one T. turanicum cultivar (Kamut® wheat). of the lemma. Resistance rate in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties against common bunt disease caused by (Tilletia tritici) 1703 important disease, its attack all wheat varieties (rough and smooth) especially in the north region, and also in the middle and south governorates. Salinity is one of the most common environmental stress factors that adversely affect plant growth and crop production in cultivated areas worldwide. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of … Iraq, and many other findings in Eastern Mediterranean countries are nearly as and almost spherical, unique among wheats, and thresh free. From 15 to 20 or more inches of precipitation are necessary for annual cropping. spelt and emmer, formerly grown to a very limited extent for feed in this Comparative germination responses to water potential across different populations of Aegilops geniculata and cultivar varieties of Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum S. Orsenigo Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milan, Milan, Italy They may be either spring or Furthermore, Gafaar (2007) found that increasing sowing density from 200 up to 400 m–2 grains significantly decreased spike length of bread wheat. This could be due to increasing in biological yield accompanied by an increase of grain yield in high seed rate. in the field, this use is now decreased. Thus, it is essential to determine the optimum seed rates for newly developed bread wheat varieties for the maximum yield. With the objective of determining the effect of seed rates on the growth parameters, yield components, yield and protein content of bread wheat varieties, a study was conducted at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center from July to November 2012. Increasing seeding rates from 100-200 kg ha–1 increased number of days from sowing to 50% heading from 70.5-73.17 (Table 1). U.S.S.R., but not commercially in the United States. This Technical Protocol applies to all varieties of Triticum aestivum L. emend. On the other hand, variety Digalu produced best yield at 175 kg ha–1 (Table 5). It can be grown under a wide range of climatic conditions and soils. inch in length depending on kind. threshing. The experiment was conducted in growth chamber at the College of Resources … Since nearly all wheat is now combined, with the straw scattered The highest plant height (104.27 cm) was recorded from 100 kg ha–1 seed rate however, statistically similar result was observed between 100, 125 and 150 kg ha–1 seed rates while, the lowest plant height (101 and 100.78 cm) was recorded from seed rate of 175 and 200 kg ha–1, respectively, which were statistically at par with each other (Table 1). The result was in contrast with Gooding and Davis (1997) who reported that increment in grain weight was associated with increased protein content and therefore density of the grain. This could be due to high grain yield in variety Shorima and Kakaba as compared to others. Two hundred and twenty-five European elite varieties were tested in four environments under two levels of N. Global genetic progress was assessed on additive genetic values and on genotype × N interaction, covering 25 years of European breeding. macha (Dek. This is a spring wheat, early in maturity with narrow, pubescent leaves. Einkom or one-tyrained wheat is a primitive kind the cultivation of which goes However, the result of this study was in contrast to that of Sulieman (2010) who reported that increase in the seeding rate resulted in a slight increment in the heights of the wheat. (1997) and Chaudhary et al. On the other hand, the lower number of tillers for variety Digelumight be attributed to the death of tillers due to low rainfall late in the growing season. In awned varieties, the awns or beards are at the terminal The maximum and minimum mean temperature is 23.08 and 9.9°C, respectively (Esayas, 2003). tending to lean over. vulgare provides the bulk of the wheat used to produce flour for bread making and for cakes and biscuits (cookies). Spelt, Triticum spelta L. (2005) and Karimzadeh et al. In case of seeding rates, plant height was reduced slightly at the highest seeding rates. A factorial arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was used. winter type and comprise nearly 95 percent of the wheat grown in this country. Effects of salt stress factors on antimicrobial activity of two Triticum aestivum L. varieties. This spontaneous hybridisation created the tetraploid species Triticum turgidum (durum wheat) 580,000–820,000 years ago. Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat grass), one of the members of Poaceae family, has been considered for very efficient therapeutic drugs. Bread wheat is an allohexaploid (an allopolyploid with six sets of chromosomes: two sets from each of three different species). is long and narrow. Appropriate information about genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm improves the efficiency of plant breeding. Modern wheat breeding … This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Similar results were obtained by Stoddard and Marshall (1990) who reported that the protein content of wheat was mainly dependent upon varieties. generally awnless, but sometimes awned. The disease causes substantial yield loss of 30-50% in the years of severe infections1. Stems generally are pithy internallv and leaves are relatively broad. consists of several distinct cell layers aild is the bran - separated from the The result obtained from this study was in agreement with Kanda and Nishizawa (1967) who revealed that dense planting promoted plant height to a certain level at the early stage of growth, while elongation was depressed at later period in rice crop. Awns are long and often Poulard wheat is closely related This could be due to the effect of highest number of tillers (69.33) in variety Danda’a at seed rate of 200 kg ha–1 than number of tillers (43.66) in variety Shorima at seed rate of 150 kg ha–1. this stage is nutritious and highly palatable. Harvest index (%): Harvest Index (HI) was highly significantly (p<0.01) affected by seed rate and varieties but the interaction between the two factors was non-significant. Polish wheat, Triticum polonicum L. Statistical data analysis: All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure using SAS software. Extra increase in seed rate did not improve grain yield because the dense wheat population creates keen competition between plants for nutrients, moisture etc, which leads to the decrease in grain yield. Note: take care to not exclude unintended data (e.g. through light brown - classed commercially as red wheat, - to white, cream or open or dense, awned, and square or rectangular in cross-section. flowers and spread at near right angles to the rachis or stem. INTRODUCTION. In early growth stages the wheat plant consists of a much compressed stem or crown and numerous narrowly linear or linear-lanceolate leaves. Seed rates of 125 and 150 kg ha–1 produced the maximum HI of 37.84 and 37.76%, respectively, however, they are statistically similar while 200 kg ha–1 gave the lowest harvest index of 29.77% (Table 6). Treatments and experimental design: Twenty treatment combinations off our bread wheat varieties (Digalu, Danda’a, Kakaba and Shorima) and five seed rates (100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 kg ha–1) were tested. The dorsal surface is generally smooth and In addition, high density caused to increasing number of spikes and as a result competition would increase and little photosynthates would be available to grain filling and finally thousand kernels weight would reduce due to high plant population. It (2002) who reported that increasing seeding rate from 350-800 seeds per m2 significantly decreased hectoliter weight in wheat. Investigating Moisture Induced Changes in the Engineering Properties and Colour Attributes of Pigmented Different Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties November 2020 DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.15142 compound or branched. to show varieties with a published resistance rating of 7, select a range of 6.5–7.4). United States. Current study was aimed at evaluation of antibacterial properties of two varieties of T. aestivum L. [cv. In general, significant differences in grain yield and most of agronomic parameters of bread wheat were observed due to variety and seeding rates. In the past 20 years, there has Triticum aestivum … be cultivated. Likewise, Gooding and Davis (1997) reported that, protein content is largely dependent on varieties but also clearly influenced by environment, especially N availability (soil N and rate and time of N application). Two wheat varieties, L979 and H27, were used in the present study. Polish wheat varieties are spring wheats with tall stems. This is definitely below the world’s average which is about 3 t ha–1 (Hawkesford et al., 2013). In cereal processing: Wheat: varieties and characteristics …in modern food production are Triticum vulgare (or aestivum), T. durum, and T. compactum.T. The result was also in agreement with Mehrvar and Asadi (2006) who reported that by increasing seed rate the number of grains per spike was reduced.