Octavius took the name Julius Caesar Octavianus at this point, thanks to the encouragement of Caesar's own veterans. Scene 3. [98] In 36 BC, Octavian used a political ploy to make himself look less autocratic and Antony more the villain by proclaiming that the civil wars were coming to an end, and that he would step down as triumvir—if only Antony would do the same. The will would have given away Roman-conquered territories as kingdoms for his sons to rule, and designated Alexandria as the site for a tomb for him and his queen. [55][59] In April 43 BC, Antony's forces were defeated at the battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina, forcing Antony to retreat to Transalpine Gaul. Augustus was intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar and was influenced on occasion by Livia (sometimes for the worse). Its reliefs depicted the imperial pageants of the praetorians, the Vestals, and the citizenry of Rome. However, though some of his contemporaries did,[35] there is no evidence that Octavius ever himself officially used the name Octavianus, as it would have made his modest origins too obvious. [228], The Corinthian order of architectural style originating from ancient Greece was the dominant architectural style in the age of Augustus and the imperial phase of Rome. Augustus's body was coffin-bound and cremated on a pyre close to his mausoleum. [147], The primary reasons for the Second Settlement were as follows. For other uses, see. [50][51], With opinion in Rome turning against him and his year of consular power nearing its end, Antony attempted to pass laws that would assign him the province of Cisalpine Gaul. [90] In an agreement reached at Tarentum, Antony provided 120 ships for Octavian to use against Pompeius, while Octavian was to send 20,000 legionaries to Antony for use against Parthia. CAESAR Hence! [214] The Augustan era poets Virgil and Horace praised Augustus as a defender of Rome, an upholder of moral justice, and an individual who bore the brunt of responsibility in maintaining the empire.[235]. [119], Years of civil war had left Rome in a state of near lawlessness, but the Republic was not prepared to accept the control of Octavian as a despot. Under his consulship, however, the Senate had little power in initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate. [36][37][38] Historians usually refer to the new Caesar as Octavian during the time between his adoption and his assumption of the name Augustus in 27 BC in order to avoid confusing the dead dictator with his heir. Despite Cicero's machinations, in 43 BCE, Antony, his supporter Lepidus, and Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate (triumviri rei publicae constituendae), a pact that would last for five years and end in 38 BCE. Julius Caesar. He had no son, but he did have a daughter, Julia Caesaris (76–54 BCE). [251], Although this did not apply to the Subura slums, which were still as rickety and fire-prone as ever, he did leave a mark on the monumental topography of the centre and of the Campus Martius, with the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) and monumental sundial, whose central gnomon was an obelisk taken from Egypt. The office of the tribunus plebis began to lose its prestige due to Augustus's amassing of tribunal powers, so he revived its importance by making it a mandatory appointment for any plebeian desiring the praetorship. Octavius mentions his father's equestrian family only briefly in his memoirs. After dealing with Pompey and Lepidus , he wages war against the forces of Antony and Cleopatra and is … While fighting for dominance, he paid little attention to legality or to the normal civilities of political life. [27] When back in Rome, Caesar deposited a new will with the Vestal Virgins, naming Octavius as the prime beneficiary. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. This was publicized on the Roman currency issued in 16 BC, after he donated vast amounts of money to the aerarium Saturni, the public treasury. [30] Mark Antony later charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favours, though Suetonius describes Antony's accusation as political slander. [232], Although the most powerful individual in the Roman Empire, Augustus wished to embody the spirit of Republican virtue and norms. [74] Marcus Velleius Paterculus asserted that Octavian tried to avoid proscribing officials whereas Lepidus and Antony were to blame for initiating them. The Empire as founded by Augustus lasted for almost 1,500 years. The memories of Pharsalus, the Ides of March, the proscriptions, Philippi, and Actium, barely twenty-five years distant, were still vivid in the minds of many citizens. [213] It is likely that Augustus was not expected to return alive from Nola, but it seems that his health improved once there; it has therefore been speculated that Augustus and Livia conspired to end his life at the anticipated time, having committed all political process to accepting Tiberius, in order to not endanger that transition. [13] He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. The Italian Peninsula was left open to all for the recruitment of soldiers, but in reality, this provision was useless for Antony in the East. [231] They had the power to intimidate the Senate, install new emperors, and depose ones they disliked; the last emperor they served was Maxentius, as it was Constantine I who disbanded them in the early 4th century and destroyed their barracks, the Castra Praetoria. [52][53] Octavian meanwhile built up a private army in Italy by recruiting Caesarian veterans and, on 28 November, he won over two of Antony's legions with the enticing offer of monetary gain. [110] Antony and his remaining forces were spared only due to a last-ditch effort by Cleopatra's fleet that had been waiting nearby. [178], Augustus chose Imperator ("victorious commander") to be his first name, since he wanted to make an emphatically clear connection between himself and the notion of victory, and consequently became known as Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus. [146], This power allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before them, to veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, to preside over elections, and to speak first at any meeting. wilt thou lift up Olympus? He transformed Caesar, a cognomen for one branch of the Julian family, into a new family line that began with him. Portico of Octavia, Theatre of Marcellus). FunTrivia.com. This desire, as well as the Marcus Primus Affair, led to a second compromise between him and the Senate known as the Second Settlement. [244], An equally important reform was the abolition of private tax farming, which was replaced by salaried civil service tax collectors. He returned Claudia to her mother, claiming that their marriage had never been consummated. But it still took many more years for Octavian to establish himself both as emperor and as the head of the Roman religion. But he was in the process of instituting major political reforms to reduce the power of the Senate and increase his own when he was assassinated by Brutus and other members of the Roman Senate. Although there is some truth in the literal meaning of this, Cassius Dio asserts that it was a metaphor for the Empire's strength. The provinces not under Octavian's control were overseen by governors chosen by the Roman Senate. [214], Historian D. C. A. Shotter states that Augustus's policy of favoring the Julian family line over the Claudian might have afforded Tiberius sufficient cause to show open disdain for Augustus after the latter's death; instead, Tiberius was always quick to rebuke those who criticized Augustus. He did so by courting the Senate and the people while upholding the republican traditions of Rome, appearing that he was not aspiring to dictatorship or monarchy. On the face of things, Augustus restored the Republic, calling himself Princeps Civitas, the First Citizen of the State, but in reality, maintained his status as military dictator of Rome. This union produced five children, three sons and two daughters: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Julia, Agrippina the Elder, and Postumus Agrippa, so named because he was born after Marcus Agrippa died. Octavian chose the former. His official images were very tightly controlled and idealized, drawing from a tradition of Hellenistic royal portraiture rather than the tradition of realism in Roman portraiture. A Look at the Lives of the First 12 Roman Emperors, From Republic to Empire: the Roman Battle of Actium, Biography of Cleopatra, Last Pharaoh of Egypt, Wars of the Second Triumvirate: Battle of Philippi, The First and Second Triumvirates of Rome. (2005). "[240], The Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift (1667–1745), in his Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome, criticized Augustus for installing tyranny over Rome, and likened what he believed Great Britain's virtuous constitutional monarchy to Rome's moral Republic of the 2nd century BC. [91], Octavian and Lepidus launched a joint operation against Sextus in Sicily in 36 BC. Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. Freedom! His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor. He began his career with little — except the name of his grand-uncle Julius Caesar, his father by adoption, and he naturally … However, Augustus handed over to his co-consul Piso all of his official documents, an account of public finances, and authority over listed troops in the provinces while Augustus's supposedly favored nephew Marcellus came away empty-handed. [96] On the other hand, Cleopatra could restore his army to full strength; he already was engaged in a romantic affair with her, so he decided to send Octavia back to Rome. [217][223], Many consider Augustus to be Rome's greatest emperor; his policies certainly extended the Empire's life span and initiated the celebrated Pax Romana or Pax Augusta. [129] Augustus is from the Latin word Augere (meaning to increase) and can be translated as "the illustrious one". [242] In his Memoirs of the Court of Augustus, the Scottish scholar Thomas Blackwell (1701–1757) deemed Augustus a Machiavellian ruler, "a bloodthirsty vindicative usurper", "wicked and worthless", "a mean spirit", and a "tyrant". [112] Octavian had exploited his position as Caesar's heir to further his own political career, and he was well aware of the dangers in allowing another person to do the same. However, this position did not extend to the censor's ability to hold a census and determine the Senate's roster. he was Octavius; after his adoption was announced in 44 B.C., Octavian; and beginning in 26 B.C. Octavian ensured Rome's citizens of their rights to property in order to maintain peace and stability in his portion of the Empire. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his political acumen also played their parts. "[123] The Senate proposed to Octavian, the victor of Rome's civil wars, that he once again assume command of the provinces. To further cement relations of alliance with Mark Antony, Octavian gave his sister, Octavia Minor, in marriage to Antony in late 40 BC. [77] Antony and Octavian then sent 28 legions by sea to face the armies of Brutus and Cassius, who had built their base of power in Greece. His father, also named Gaius Octavius, had been governor of Macedonia. [69] This explicit arrogation of special powers lasting five years was then legalised by law passed by the plebs, unlike the unofficial First Triumvirate formed by Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Marcus Licinius Crassus. Augustus was the son of Atia, the daughter of Julius Caesar's sister Julia the Younger (101–51 BCE), and her husband Marcus Atius, the son of Octavius, a relatively average praetor from the Roman colony of Velitrae. Octavius, also known as Augustus, is the adopted son of Julius Caesar. Publicly, though, his last words were, "Behold, I found Rome of clay, and leave her to you of marble." [32][33] After landing at Lupiae near Brundisium, Octavius learned the contents of Caesar's will, and only then did he decide to become Caesar's political heir as well as heir to two-thirds of his estate. [208], The only other possible claimant as heir was Postumus Agrippa, who had been exiled by Augustus in AD 7, his banishment made permanent by senatorial decree, and Augustus officially disowned him. During the summer, he managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers and also made common with the Optimates, the former enemies of Caesar, who saw him as the lesser evil and hoped to manipulate him. Gaius Octavius: The Savior of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar 835 Words | 3 Pages. [245] As it was effectively considered Augustus's private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor's patrimonium. CASCA first, then the other Conspirators and BRUTUS stab CAESAR. The event was celebrated in art such as the breastplate design on the statue Augustus of Prima Porta and in monuments such as the Temple of Mars Ultor ('Mars the Avenger') built to house the standards. Cassius Dio defended Octavian as trying to spare as many as possible, whereas Antony and Lepidus, being older and involved in politics longer, had many more enemies to deal with. When Lepidus grew old and lazy, and Anthony's self-indulgence got the better of him, the only possible cure for the distracted country had been government by one man. Ando, p. 140; Raaflaub, p. 426; Wells, p. 53, Syme, p. 333; Holland, p. 300; Southern, p. 108. A savvy politician, Octavian had even more of an impact on the history of the Roman Empire than did Julius. Thanks to his prestige or auctoritas, his wishes would usually be obeyed, but there might be some difficulty. In addition to claiming responsibility for both victories, Antony also branded Octavian as a coward for handing over his direct military control to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa instead. [130] The title princeps senatus originally meant the member of the Senate with the highest precedence,[131] but in the case of Augustus, it became an almost regnal title for a leader who was first in charge. Both Tacitus and Cassius Dio wrote that Livia was rumored to have brought about Augustus's death by poisoning fresh figs. Traditionally, proconsuls (Roman province governors) lost their proconsular "imperium" when they crossed the Pomerium – the sacred boundary of Rome – and entered the city. [181] The rebellious tribes of Asturias and Cantabria in modern-day Spain were finally quelled in 19 BC, and the territory fell under the provinces of Hispania and Lusitania. Augustus failed to stand for election as consul in 22 BC, and fears arose once again that he was being forced from power by the aristocratic Senate. Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. [119] Historian Werner Eck states: The sum of his power derived first of all from various powers of office delegated to him by the Senate and people, secondly from his immense private fortune, and thirdly from numerous patron-client relationships he established with individuals and groups throughout the Empire. He also awarded the title "Queen of Kings" to Cleopatra, acts that Octavian used to convince the Roman Senate that Antony had ambitions to diminish the preeminence of Rome. [182], Conquering the peoples of the Alps in 16 BC was another important victory for Rome, since it provided a large territorial buffer between the Roman citizens of Italy and Rome's enemies in Germania to the north.