[10] The vertebrae were articulated in a procoelous manner, meaning they had a concave hollow on the front end and a convex bulge on the rear; these would have fit together to produce a ball and socket joint. They appear to have been adapted for crushing, rather than piercing. [4][15] These deeply pitted osteoderms have been used to suggest that, despite its bulk, Deinosuchus could probably have walked on land much like modern-day crocodiles. Check out the range of dinosaur toys, games, books and clothes in the Museum shop. [8] It has been argued that even the largest and strongest theropod dinosaurs, such as Tyrannosaurus, probably had bite forces inferior to that of Deinosuchus. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Abstract photos available for quick and easy download. According to Schwimmer, the growth ring patterns observed could have been affected by a variety of factors, including "migrations of their prey, wet-dry seasonal climate variations, or oceanic circulation and nutrient cycles". The purpose of this structure is not known. The tracks ― which the authors name Batrachopus grandis ― belong to a new species of crocodylomorph, which are ancestors to modern … [15][36] Better cranial material was also found; by 2002, David R. Schwimmer was able to create a composite computer reconstruction of 90% of the skull. Partial skeletons, numerous skulls and 20 tons of assorted other fossils were recovered from the deposits of the Elrhaz Formation, which has been dated as late Aptian or early Albian stages of the Late Cretaceous. [15] The teeth described by Emmons were thick, slightly curved, and covered with vertically grooved enamel; he assigned them a new species name, P. Despite its inaccuracies, the reconstructed skull became the best-known specimen of Deinosuchus, and brought public attention to this giant crocodilian for the first time. The remains of S. imperator were found in a region of the Ténéré Desert named Gadoufaoua, more specifically in the Elrhaz Formation of the Tegama Group, dating from the late Aptian to the early Albian of the Early Cretaceous,[22] approximately 112 million years ago. [16] This was later corroborated when it was noted that most known specimens of D. rugosus usually had skulls of about 1 meter (3.3 ft) with estimated total lengths of 8 meters (26 ft) and weights of 2.3 metric tons (2.5 short tons). It is known from two species, S. imperator from the early Albian Elrhaz Formation of Niger and S. hartti from the Late Hauterivian of northeastern Brazil, other material is known from Morocco and Tunisia and possibly Libya and Mali. These osteoderms were initially attributed to the ankylosaurid dinosaur Euoplocephalus. [34] Later discoveries showed that Polyptychodon was actually a pliosaur, a type of marine reptile. [2] Within this group it is most closely related to the North American genus Terminonaris. Deinosuchus reached its largest size in its western habitat, but the eastern populations were far more abundant. [3] This proposal was endorsed by Lucas et al. Two holes in the premaxilla in front of the nares are present in this genus and are unique autapomorphies not seen in other crocodilians, but nothing is known at present regarding their function. Explore Wikis; Community Central; Start a Wiki; Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? Two regression equations were used to estimate the size of S. imperator, they were created based on measurements gathered from 17 captive gharial individuals from northern India and from 28 wild saltwater crocodile individuals from northern Australia,[2] both datasets supplemented by available measurements of individuals over 1.5 m (4.92 ft) in length found in the literature. [33], Schwimmer noted in 2002 that Erickson and Brochu's assumptions about growth rates are only valid if the osteodermal rings reflect annual periods, as they do in modern crocodilians. However, this view was not universally supported and Schwimmer (2002) recognized just one species, Deinosuchus rugosus, with the differences found between the two species explained as the result of the larger size of the western morph. [11], Later, in 1964, the research team of the French CEA discovered an almost complete skull in region of Gadoufaoua, in the north of Niger, said skull was shipped to Paris for study and became the holotype of the then new genus and species Sarcosuchus imperator in 1966. Unlike most crocodiles, it has long canine teeth, much like that of the modern day wild boar and was a more terrestrial hunter. If the ring cycle were biannual rather than annual, this might indicate Deinosuchus grew faster than modern crocodilians, and had a similar maximum lifespan. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 424–444. The Deinosuchus is considered one of the strongest crocodilians in the game, having Defense 30 defense and a total of Damage 240 damage at elder. The first remains were discovered in North Carolina (United States) in the 1850s; the genus was named and described in 1909. [34] Although not initially recognized as such, these teeth were probably the first Deinosuchus remains to be scientifically described. [5][32], Schwimmer concluded in 2002 that the feeding patterns of Deinosuchus most likely varied by geographic location; the smaller Deinosuchus specimens of eastern North America would have been opportunistic feeders in an ecological niche similar to that of the modern American alligator. (2011). Add new page. [2] Each premaxilla contained four teeth, with the pair nearest to the tip of the snout being significantly smaller than the other two. [12] Sarcosuchus stands out among pholidosaurids for being considered a generalist predator, different from most known members of the clade which were specialized piscivores. Kaprosuchus, also known as the "boar-croc", is a crocodile from the Late Cretaceous of North Africa. [3], "Crocodylian Head Width Allometry and Phylogenetic Prediction of Body Size in Extinct Crocodyliforms", 10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0354:FDABSO]2.0.CO;2, "Size and Palaeoecology of Giant Miocene South American Crocodiles (Archosauria: Crocodylia)", "Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of, "Notice of some new reptilian remains from the Cretaceous of Brazil", "On the Cretaceous formation of Bahia (Brazil) and on vertebrae fossils collected therein", "An Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from the Cabao Formation of NW Libya", "Spinning Slayers: Giant Crocs Used 'Death Rolls' to Kill Dinosaurs", "Structural Extremes in a Cretaceous Dinosaur", "Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger", SuperCroc's jaws were superstrong, study shows, Sereno, team discover prehistoric giant Sarcosuchus imperator in African desert, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sarcosuchus&oldid=984333753, Early Cretaceous crocodylomorphs of Africa, Early Cretaceous crocodylomorphs of South America, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 15:35. This species of … [2] Most members of Pholidosauridae had long, slender snouts and they all were aquatic, inhabiting several different environments, some forms are interpreted as marine, capable of tolerating saltwater while others, like Sarcosuchus, were freshwater forms, the most primitive members of the clade, however, were found in coastal settings, zones of mixing of freshwater and marine waters. August 14, 2020. [19] A Deinosuchus osteoderm from the San Carlos Formation was also reported in 2006, so the giant crocodilian's range may have included parts of northern Mexico. Universe. They would have consumed marine turtles, large fish, and smaller dinosaurs. [23], The distribution of Deinosuchus specimens indicates these giant crocodilians may have preferred estuarine environments. [1] It had somewhat telescoped eyes and a long snout comprising 75% of the length of the skull. Although Deinosuchus was far larger than any modern crocodile or alligator, with the largest adults measuring 12 meters (39 ft) in total length, its overall appearance was fairly similar to its smaller relatives. The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris = "crocodile of the marsh"), also called the Indian, Indus, Persian, Sindhu, marsh crocodile or simply mugger, is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding countries, like Pakistan where the Indus crocodile is the national reptile of Pakistan. [11] Colbert restated this hypothesis more confidently in 1961: "Certainly this crocodile must have been a predator of dinosaurs; otherwise why would it have been so overwhelmingly gigantic? [4][10], The large size of Deinosuchus has generally been recognized despite the fragmentary nature of the fossils assigned to it. Prehistoric Super-Crocodiles May Have Dined on Dinosaurs - TIME [17] Indeterminate Sarcosuchus material including dorsal osteoderms in anatomical connection, isolated teeth and fragmentary skeletal remains including a left scapula, mandible fragment, dorsal vertebrae, illium and a proximal portion of a femur was described from the Oum Ed Dhiab Member in Tunisia in 2018[18], Sereno took thin sections from trunk osteoderms of an estimated subadult individual (~80% of estimated maximum adult size). In February, a "bonecrushing" 7-foot long crocodile –­ nicknamed the "T. Rex of its time" –­ that walked on all fours but but used its hind legs to run … [12] The name means \"terrible crocodile\" in Greek because deinos (δεινός), \"terrible\", and soukhos (σοῦχος), \"crocodile\". [14][15] Deep pits and grooves on these osteoderms served as attachment points for connective tissue. [11] Because it was not then known that Deinosuchus had a broad snout, Colbert and Bird miscalculated the proportions of the skull, and the reconstruction greatly exaggerated its overall width and length. [4] Schwimmer noted no theropod dinosaurs in Deinosuchus's eastern range approached its size, indicating the massive crocodilian could have been the region's apex predator. A North African Crocodile appears in the episode "The Lost World" at a watering hole, being spooked by a Spinosaurus before a Sarcosuchus appears. "[29] Deinosuchus is generally thought to have employed hunting tactics similar to those of modern crocodilians, ambushing dinosaurs and other terrestrial animals at the water's edge and then submerging them until they drowned. The original estimate from 1954 for the type specimen of the then-named "Phobosuchus riograndensis" were based on a skull of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) and a lower jaw of 1.8 meters (5.9 ft) long, reconstructed with similar proportions to the Cuban crocodile giving a total estimated length of 15 meters (49 ft). Additional fragments were discovered in the 1940s and were later incorporated into an inaccurate skull reconstruction at the Ameri… Deinosuchus is a semi-aquatic creature in Dinosaur Simulator, with a total of 60 oxygen. About 100 million years ago, toward the middle of the Cretaceous period, some South American crocodiles had begun to imitate their dinosaur cousins by evolving to enormous sizes. hartti. [24] Although some specimens have also been found in marine deposits, it is not clear whether Deinosuchus ventured out into the ocean (like modern-day saltwater crocodiles); these remains might have been displaced after the animals died. [21] There is also a report describing a possible Deinosuchus scute from Colorado. [18], Deinosuchus was present on both sides of the Western Interior Seaway. [1], Sarcosuchus is commonly classified as part of the clade Pholidosauridae,[2][11][12] a group of crocodile-like reptiles (Crocodyliformes) related but outside Crocodylia (the clade containing living crocodiles, alligators and gharials). Submit your funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the list. [22][23], Meanwhile, S. hartti was found in the Recôncavo Basin of Brazil, specifically in the Ilhas Formation of the Bahia series, it was a shallow lacustrine environment dating from the late Aptian, similar in age to the habitat of S. imperator, with similar aquatic fauna, including Lepidotus and two species of Mawsonia. .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.7em;padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;border-bottom:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width{overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.first{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.last{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar.reverse{text-align:right;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf.reverse{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkA{background-color:yellow}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkB{background-color:green}, During the course of several expeditions on the Sahara from 1946 to 1959, led by the French paleontologist Albert-Félix de Lapparent, several fossils of a crocodyliform of large size were unearthed in the region known as the Continental Intercalaire Formation, some of them were found in Foggara Ben Draou, in Mali and near the town of Aoulef, Algeria (informally named as the Aoulef Crocodile) while others came from the Ain el Guettar Formation of Gara Kamboute, in the south of Tunisia, the fossils found were fragments of the skull, teeth, scutes and vertebrae. [3] The dinosaur fauna was represented by the iguanodontian Lurdusaurus, which was the most common dinosaur in the region, and its relative Ouranosaurus; there were also two sauropods, Nigersaurus and a currently unnamed sauropod while the theropod fauna included the spinosaurid Suchomimus, the carcharodontosaurid Eocarcharia and the abelisaurid Kryptops. The genus name comes from the Greek σάρξ (sarx) meaning flesh and σοῦχος (souchus) meaning crocodile. [2] A 2019 study found it to be in a more derived position in Tethysuchia, being phylogenetically closer to Dyrosauridae. Dinosaur Names – Dinosaurs are one powerful creature that has managed to retain interest for centuries after their extinction. This length was used in conjunction with a regression equation relating skull length to total length in the American alligator to estimate a total length of 10.6 meters (35 ft) for this particular specimen. Back in the Mesozoic Era, quite a number and kinds of dinosaurs existed. Fossils have also been found in northern Mexico. [9], Deinosuchus had a secondary bony palate, which would have permitted it to breathe through its nostrils while the rest of the head remained submerged underwater. It's a plant-eating dinosaur with a small head's. Stegosaurus is an example. It has large, triangular bones protruding from its back. Excavation at the site, carried out by W.H. "[27][28] David R. Schwimmer proposed in 2002 that several hadrosaurid tail vertebrae found near Big Bend National Park show evidence of Deinosuchus tooth marks, strengthening the hypothesis that Deinosuchus fed on dinosaurs in at least some instances. Grallator [’GRA-luh-tor’] is an ichnogenus (form taxon based on footprints) which covers a common type of small, three-toed print made by a variety of bipedal theropod dinosaurs. (2013) noted that D. rugosus is dubious due to its holotype teeth being undiagnostic, and recommended using Deinosuchus hatcheri for Deinosuchus material from Laramidia, while stressing that cranial Deinosuchus material from Appalachia has not been described.[41]. Despite its large size, the overall appearance of Deinosuchus was not considerably different from that of modern crocodilians. This was a completely different growth strategy than that of large dinosaurs, which reached adult size much more quickly and had shorter lifespans. It is much smaller than the famous Spinosaurus, its size being closer to that of either Baryonyx or maybe a real Suchomumus. Deinosuchus' name means "terror crocodiles," but the study's authors say that they more closely resembled alligators. [4] The tooth count for each dentary (tooth-bearing bone in the lower jaw) was at least 22. [11], In 1977, a new species of Sarcosuchus was recognised, S. hartti, from remains found in the late 19th century in late Hauterivian pebbly conglomerates and green shales belonging to the Ilhas Group in the Recôncavo Basin of north-eastern Brazil. [3] The skull of Deinosuchus itself was of a unique shape not seen in any other living or extinct crocodilians; the skull was broad, but inflated at the front around the nares.